Metro

  • Written by Tamara Hew-Butler, Associate Professor of Exercise and Sports Science, Wayne State University

Every 365.25 days, when the Earth completes a full orbit around the Sun, we humans have the opportunity to hit the reset button and become fitter, finer versions of ourselves. As usual for January, social media is humming with advice on how to eat better, exercise regularly, lose weight and remain healthy. We feel particularly invincible at this time of year, armed with renewed vigor and motivation to purge ourselves from previous indulgences and our couch-potato ways.

The New Year is also the time when our overzealous, instant-gratification selves emerge, and we do too much exercise too soon to make up for lost time. Exhaustive muscular work, especially following a period of inactivity, can cause mechanical and chemical disruptions to muscle cell membranes which trigger the muscle cells to burst.

I am an exercise physiologist and sports medicine specialist[1] who studies exercise-associated collapse. I am seeing and hearing of more incidents of skeletal muscle ruptures that are causing harm in other parts of the body.

This information is not designed to scare people back onto the couch. The key take-away from highlighting these cases is to remind athletes, coaches and mere mortals that the desired physiological response to a training stimulus requires both a gradual buildup period and period of recovery in between training sessions.

The serious consequence of exercising too much, too fast A cross-section of the human kidneys, which can be injured when muscle cells rupture and send toxic chemicals into the bloodstream. crystal light/Shutterstock.com[2]

More than muscle injury

The medical term for skeletal muscle cell rupture is “rhabdomyolysis[3],” or “rhabdo” for short. When muscle cells rupture or explode, the intracellular contents are released into the bloodstream. These cellular contents include enzymes, such as creatine kinase; electrolytes, such as potassium; and proteins, such as myoglobin.

Myoglobin[4], in particular, is a big, red protein that can block the kidney filtration system, or renal tubules, that serve as kidney plumbing. It also can dissociate into toxic byproducts that injure kidneys. In rare cases, too much myoglobin in the bloodstream can stop kidney function altogether, as happened with a 27-year old marathon runner[5] who died from kidney failure.

In a study we conducted on college swimmers, we saw a cluster of rhabdomyolysis, in which six out of 34 swimmers[6] were hospitalized after participating in a 20-minute or so “arm competition” to see how many pull-ups, rows and bench presses they could complete. Cases of “symptomatic rhabdo,” or those needing medical treatment, appear to be increasing within collegiate sports teams at an alarming rate, with the characteristic appearance seen in football players returning to January practice[7] after a season-ending holiday layoff.

To date, 17 cases[8] of team rhabdo have occurred from doing “too much, too soon, too fast” and include a variety of sports such as football, swimming, lacrosse, soccer, track, basketball, softball, volleyball and golf.

University of Houston women’s soccer players suffered from rhabdomyolosis after grueling workouts.

Noncompetitive athletes affected too

So, what about us mere mortals trying to get back in shape? Any physical activity that is either new or excessive can cause symptomatic rhabdo. Excessive gardening[9], weightlifting[10], CrossFit type[11] activities and even a routine Army physical fitness test[12] have triggered symptomatic rhabdo with kidney injury.

Over 90 cases[13] of rhabdo have been documented after spinning, while 119 high school students[14] in Taiwan ended up in the emergency room after their teacher made them complete 120 push-ups within five minutes. Thus, harmful muscle cell rupture can occur after any degree five minutes[15] to 36 hours[16] of exuberant and/or unaccustomed physical activity.

In combination, gradual training and appropriate recovery allow beneficial muscular, cardiovascular and body composition adaptations to occur, such as building muscle, increasing fitness and losing body fat. Our research confirms that a two-week gradual introduction[17] into training after a layoff is required for muscle cell membranes to fully adapt to training stress.

Subclinical rhabdo[18], or muscle breakdown without acute kidney injury or debilitating symptoms, is common and represents the typical response to training which does not require medical treatment. However, hard exercise, especially following a layoff, with the following signs or symptoms within one to two days requires an appropriate medical examination:

  • excruciating muscle pain that does not resolve over time
  • muscle swelling with limitations in movement
  • nausea or vomiting, or both
  • very dark (looks like Coca-Cola) or sparse urine.

There are risk factors which increase the likelihood of developing rhabdo following a workout. These risk factors include exercising in the heat[19], dehydration[20] or overhydration[21], binge drinking[22], excessive coffee[23] consumption, extreme dietary[24] practices (vegetarian[25] or high [protein] https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000310)) and possessing the sickle cell[26] trait. Both men and women can develop symptomatic rhabdo, although we see more cases in men. Smaller arm[27] muscles appear more susceptible to rupture after five to 30 minutes of exercise than bigger leg[28] muscles for reasons that remain unclear.

Although symptomatic rhabdomyolysis is uncommon, this emergent complication of exercise should be on everyone’s radar since cases are on the rise. We coaches, trainers, scientists, practitioners and others encourage everyone to reap the joys and benefits of regular exercise training. However, we caution against exercising too much too soon. Self- (or coach-) inflicted skeletal muscle cell explosions are fully preventable with adherence to smart, physiologically sound approaches to training.

[ You’re smart and curious about the world. So are The Conversation’s authors and editors. You can read us daily by subscribing to our newsletter[29]. ]

References

  1. ^ exercise physiologist and sports medicine specialist (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
  2. ^ crystal light/Shutterstock.com (www.shutterstock.com)
  3. ^ rhabdomyolysis (doi.org)
  4. ^ Myoglobin (doi.org)
  5. ^ 27-year old marathon runner (doi.org)
  6. ^ six out of 34 swimmers (dx.doi.org)
  7. ^ football players returning to January practice (doi.org)
  8. ^ 17 cases (doi.org)
  9. ^ gardening (doi.org)
  10. ^ weightlifting (doi.org)
  11. ^ CrossFit type (doi.org)
  12. ^ Army physical fitness test (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov)
  13. ^ 90 cases (doi.org)
  14. ^ 119 high school students (doi.org)
  15. ^ five minutes (doi.org)
  16. ^ 36 hours (doi.org)
  17. ^ two-week gradual introduction (doi.org)
  18. ^ Subclinical rhabdo (doi.org)
  19. ^ heat (doi.org)
  20. ^ dehydration (doi.org)
  21. ^ overhydration (doi.org)
  22. ^ binge drinking (doi.org)
  23. ^ excessive coffee (doi.org)
  24. ^ dietary (doi.org)
  25. ^ vegetarian (doi.org)
  26. ^ sickle cell (doi.org)
  27. ^ arm (doi.org)
  28. ^ leg (doi.org)
  29. ^ You can read us daily by subscribing to our newsletter (theconversation.com)

Authors: Tamara Hew-Butler, Associate Professor of Exercise and Sports Science, Wayne State University

Read more http://theconversation.com/the-serious-consequence-of-exercising-too-much-too-fast-129501

Metropolitan republishes selected articles from The Conversation USA with permission

Visit The Conversation to see more

Entertainment News

TED CLINE ... Country Music Done Right

Country Music Done Right When Ted Cline uses the phrase “Country Music Done Right” to describe his engaging vibe, the Kansas City area-based singer/songwriter isn’t simply being crafty or clev...

News Company - avatar News Company

LAMONT DOZIER, JR. “Why Can’t We Be Lovers”/”I’m Gonna Take My Time”

When it comes to enduring musical legacies, it’s always inspiring when the melodic, grooving evergreen apples drop so close to the tree. The son and namesake of legendary singer, songwriter and re...

News Company - avatar News Company

DAWGGONEDAVIS ft. Chago G Williams (Rap Master, Producer)

“Darkest Hour” Just a little over two years since Rebecca “DawgGoneDavis” first took the world (and the World & Euro Indie charts) by storm with her quirky and infectious debut single “Mi...

News Company - avatar News Company

Stephen Wrench “Burning Bridges”

When the true colors of people you thought were nice and kind become the latest casualties of your Facebook friends list, the gloves just have to come off. As Stephen Wrench so powerfully and bl...

News Company - avatar News Company

Indulgent Fool Gasoline Tequila

Indulgent Fool,” the latest release from Gasoline Tequila, uses the emotive language of guitar to tell a story about sensuality and courtship. Any given night, in any given room, can define an arti...

News Company - avatar News Company

Chelsey Green and The Green Project release fresh new EP, ReEnvisioned

Chelsey Green and The Green Project. Their fresh new EP, ReEnvisioned, is a dynamic and empowering collection that in only four tracks showcases their passions for contemporary and traditional jazz...

News Company - avatar News Company

Fresh Prince of Bel Air's original "Aunt Viv" Janet Hubert announces new animation project

‘JG and the BC Kids’ Starts Preproduction with Toonz Media Group, Elijah Rock Productions and Ericka Nicole Malone Entertainment to Inspire Children to Embrace Themselves and Others  ...

News Company - avatar News Company

ANGELA PREDHOMME - It’s just So Good To Be Free

There’s something powerful and inspiring about an independent artist who pursues her passion and finds widespread success on her own terms, rather than following the generally accepted mainstream ...

News Company - avatar News Company

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, Pure Mission Entertainment’s Willie J releases “In The Morning”

“In the Morning” To borrow from a well-known spiritual cliché, sometimes the musical muse works in mysterious ways. When Willie J joined forces in 2019 with Atlanta producer Cool Kid Diddy and...

Tom Estey - avatar Tom Estey

Metropolitan Business News

MODEL/ACTOR THORN CASTILLO IS THE “NEW FACE” OF SCHICK STYLIST

In 2019, just as his multi-faceted career was taking off, Thorn Castillo heard Robert Downey Jr. offer a sage bit of advice during an interview on photographer/director Sam Jones’ acclaimed multi-...

News Company - avatar News Company

New Research Highlights Opportunities for Sports Betting

Revenue Stream for Sports’ Post-COVID-19 Recovery Strategies New Rochelle, NY, June 1, 2020— Twenty-four states have now legalized sports betting, with more states considering legalization la...

Len Stein - avatar Len Stein

How to make overseas transfers easier?

Mainstream banks can charge as much as $20 just to process a basic international money transfer. Fortunately, today people are not doomed to handling personal finances only through mainstream gl...

News Company - avatar News Company

The flourishing international market of fragrance and perfume

There is something special and unique about the art of fragrance. This is a big world and there are quite literally a lot of smells around at any given time. In fact, as one of the five human senses i...

News Company - avatar News Company

Impact of good marketing on sales

Sales and marketing are brothers as they go hand and in hand. The job of both of these departments is to generate revenue so that an organization can make money. A company that does not generate rev...

News Company - avatar News Company

7 effective tips for increasing sales in retail

It seems that retailers have drawn a difficult lot in the 21st century: competition from online retail is growing steadily. After all, Internet retailers can sell your products at significantly lowe...

News Company - avatar News Company

Holidays

5 COOL GADGETS TO CARRY FOR A SAFE TRIP

Are you planning to go on a trip? Possibly, you do not know what things are most necessary on a trip. In this article, we will guide you through some important tips. These tips help you to...

News Company - avatar News Company

New Baggage Regulations to Help Aussie Parents Travel with Infants

Travelling around the globe has never been easy, especially when infants tag along for the trip. One of the main issues that parents often have to deal with is the need to bring extra item...

News Company - avatar News Company

Maya Beach Opens to Tourists

Despite recent reports that Southern Thailand's famous Maya Beach will close for three months this year, in fact no decision to this effect has been made by Thai authorities. Phi Phi Nati...

Maevadi Rosenfeldt - avatar Maevadi Rosenfeldt